Tag: Liquid

Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes


Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes By J.-P.E. Grolier, C.J. Wormald, J.-C. Fontaine (auth.), H.V. Kehiaian (eds.)
2004 | 564 Pages | ISBN: 3540603476 | PDF | 28 MB
Heat of mixing data are important to the design of industrial processes. They can be used in energy balance and phase equilibrium calculations. Being related to the structure and the energy of interaction of the molecules in the pure substances and in the mixtures, heat of mixing data are of paramount importance also from the theoretical point of view. This subvolume containes selected data on heats of mixing (excess enthalpies) of binary liquid mixtures of organic and inorganic nonelectrolytes, including aqueous-organic systems, in broad ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition. All the data are extracted from the original literature published from 1957 to 2003. The names of the authors, the titles of the publications, and the exact references are given. Estimated uncertainties are reported. The printed volume presents tables for 800 representative mixtures. The CD-ROM displays all these data, as well as 2853 additional data files, in PDF format and in a fully documented computer readable standard electronic file (SELF) format. Moreover, the ELBT-program allows the fast search of data according to property type, chemical system (substances and mixtures), author(s), source and year of publication. Moreover it allows the correlation of the numerical data with several equations and the display of the original data and of the correlated data in tabular and graphical form.

(more…)

Atlas of Thyroid Cytopathology on Liquid-Based Preparations


Atlas of Thyroid Cytopathology on Liquid-Based Preparations: Correlation with Clinical, Radiological, Molecular Tests and Histopathology by Rana S. Hoda
English | EPUB | 2020 | 246 Pages | ISBN : 3030250652 | 381.65 MB
This illustrated volume serves as a handy guide to diagnostic fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of thyroid on liquid-based preparations (LBP). It is intended to be a ready resource to accurately diagnose thyroid lesions on LBP using key cytomorphologic features. Key cytologic differential diagnosis, gross, and histopathological correlations accompany the cytological findings.

(more…)

Molecular Theory of Nematic (and Other) Liquid Crystals An Introduction


Molecular Theory of Nematic (and Other) Liquid Crystals: An Introduction
English | 2022 | ISBN: 3030998614 | 128 Pages | PDF EPUB (True) | 7 MB
This book provides a didactic derivation of the main theories of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, revealing the common molecular-theoretic framework that underpins both theories. This unified context will help young researchers in coming to grips with the basics of the simplest of liquid crystals, being uniaxial nematic liquid crystals, easing them into the intricacies of more complex forms of such materials irrespective of whether they are thermotropic or lyotropic. The coverage provides a theoretical understanding of the phase behaviour, that is, what drives molecules and particles to spontaneously align themselves, as well as an appreciation of the role of entropy, energy and so on. The focus here is on the main theories for the isotropic-nematic transition, being the Maier-Saupe and the Onsager theories, and how they are derived from a common description, known as (classical) density functional theory (DFT). This book will be a valuable resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, and experimentalists and engineers who feel intimidated by more formal or rigorous theoretical accounts and textbooks. Exercises at the end of each chapter help the reader to apply the basic concepts also to other types of liquid crystal, in particular the smectic liquid crystal.

(more…)

Handbook of Liquid Crystals Low Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals I, Volume 2 A


Handbook of Liquid Crystals: Low Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals I, Volume 2 A By Prof. D. Demus, Prof. J. Goodby, Prof. G. W. Gray, Prof. H.?W. Spiess, Dr. V. Vill(auth.)
1998 | 525 Pages | ISBN: 3527292713 | PDF | 20 MB
The Handbook of Liquid Crystals is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of liquid crystals. In over 2000 pages the Handbook provides detailed information on the basic principles of both low- and high-molecular weight materials, as well as the synthesis, characterization, modification, and applications (such as in computer displays or as structural materials) of all types of liquid crystals. The five editors of the Handbook are internationally renowned experts from both industry and academia and have drawn together over 70 leading figures in the field as authors. The four volumes of the Handbook are designed both to be used together or as stand-alone reference sources. Some users will require the whole set, others will be best served with one or two of the volumes. Volume 1 deals with the basic physical and chemical principles of liquid crystals, including structure-property relationships, nomenclature, phase behavior, characterization methods, and general synthesis and application strategies. As such this volume provides an excellent introduction to the field and a powerful learning and teaching tool for graduate students and above. Volumes 2A and 2B concentrate on low-molecular weight materials, for example those typically used in display technology. A high quality survey of the literature is provided along with full details of molecular design strategies, phase characterization and control, and applications development. These volumes are therefore by far the most detailed reference sources on these industrially very important materials, ideally suited for professionals in the field. Volume 3 concentrates on high-molecular weight, or polymeric, liquid crystals, some of which are found in structural applications and others occur as natural products of living systems. A high-quality literature survey is complemented by full detail of the synthesis, processing, analysis, and applications of all important materials classes. This volume is the most comprehensive reference source on these materials, and is therefore ideally suited for professionals in the field. Content: Chapter I Phase Structures of Calamitic Liquid Crystals (pages 3-21): John W. GoodbyChapter II Phase Transitions in Rod?Like Liquid Crystals (pages 23-46): Daniel GuillonChapter III.1 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Synthesis of Nematic Liquid Crystals (pages 47-59): Kenneth J. ToyneChapter III.2.1 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.1 (pages 60-90): Ralf StannariusChapter III.2.2 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.2 (pages 91-112): Horst KresseChapter III.2.3 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.3 (pages 113-127): Ralf StannariusChapter III.2.4 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.4 (pages 128-141): Gerhard PelzlChapter III:2.5 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.5 (pages 142-169): Herbert Kneppe and Frank SchneiderChapter III.2.6 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties, Section 2.6 (pages 170-197): R. Blinc and I. MusevicChapter III.3.1 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Applications, Section 3.1 (pages 199-229): Harald Hirschmann and Volker ReiffenrathChapter III.3.2 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Applications, Section 3.2 (pages 230-242): Eiji KanekoChapter III.3.3 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Applications, Section 3.3 (pages 243-256): Birendra BahadurChapter III.3.4 Nematic Liquid Crystals: Applications, Section 3.4 (pages 257-302): Birendra BahadurChapter IV.1 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals: The Synthesis of Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals (pages 303-334): Christopher J. BoothChapter IV.2 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals: Chiral Nematics: Physical Properties and Applications (pages 335-409): Harry ColesChapter V.1 Non?Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals: Synthesis of Non?Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals (pages 411-440): John W. GoodbyChapter V.2 Non?Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties of Non?Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals (pages 441-469): C. C. HuangChapter V.3 Non?Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystals: Nonchiral Smectic Liquid Crystals – Applications (pages 470-490): David Coates

(more…)

Liquid Crystals and their Computer Simulations


Liquid Crystals and their Computer Simulations
English | 2022 | ISBN: 1108424058 | 703 Pages | PDF | 25 MB
Standing as the first unified textbook on the subject, Liquid Crystals and Their Computer Simulations provides a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of liquid crystals and of their Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics computer simulations. Liquid crystals have a complex physical nature, and, therefore, computer simulations are a key element of research in this field. This modern text develops a uniform formalism for addressing various spectroscopic techniques and other experimental methods for studying phase transitions of liquid crystals, and emphasises the links between their molecular organisation and observable static and dynamic properties. Aided by the inclusion of a set of Appendices containing detailed mathematical background and derivations, this book is accessible to a broad and multidisciplinary audience. Primarily intended for graduate students and academic researchers, it is also an invaluable reference for industrial researchers working on the development of liquid crystal display technology.

(more…)

Practical High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fourth Edition


Practical High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fourth Edition By Veronika R. Meyer(auth.)
2004 | 368 Pages | ISBN: 0470093773 | PDF | 6 MB
Veronika Meyer’s book on HPLC is a classic text and remains one of the few titles available on general HPLC. Following on from the success of the previous three editions, this new, fourth edition continues to provide users of HPLC in industry, government, and service laboratories, as well as postgraduate students, with a unified approach to HPLC and an equal treatment of the theory and practice of this important technique. The contents of this edition have been revised, expanded and updated. Where available, old literature references have been replaced by recent ones. New sections on the following topics have been included: Shelf-live of mobile phasesThe mixing crossPhase systems in ion chromatographyMeasurement uncertaintyContent: Chapter 1 Introduction (pages 4-13): Chapter 2 Theoretical Principles (pages 14-51): Chapter 3 Pumps (pages 52-57): Chapter 4 Preparation of Equipment up to Sample Injection (pages 58-72): Chapter 5 Solvent Properties (pages 73-81): Chapter 6 Detectors (pages 82-105): Chapter 7 Columns and Stationary Phases (pages 106-129): Chapter 8 HPLC Column Tests (pages 130-145): Chapter 9 Adsorption Chromatography (pages 146-158): Chapter 10 Reversed?Phase Chromatography (pages 159-177): Chapter 11 Chromatography with Chemically Bonded Phases (pages 178-182): Chapter 12 Ion?Exchange Chromatography (pages 183-194): Chapter 13 Ion?Pair Chromatography (pages 195-201): Chapter 14 Ion Chromatography (pages 202-206): Chapter 15 Size?Exclusion Chromatography (pages 207-221): Chapter 16 Affinity Chromatography (pages 222-227): Chapter 17 Choice of Method (pages 228-234): Chapter 18 Solving the Elution Problem (pages 235-254): Chapter 19 Analytical HPLC (pages 255-284): Chapter 20 Preparative HPLC (pages 285-296): Chapter 21 Separation of Enantiomers (pages 297-310): Chapter 22 Special Possibilities (pages 311-319): Chapter 23 Appendix 1: Applied HPLC Theory (pages 320-329): Chapter 24 Appendix 2: How to Perform the Instrument Test (pages 330-336): Bruno E. LendiChapter 25 Appendix 3: Troubleshooting (pages 337-344): Bruno E. LendiChapter 26 Appendix 4: Column Packing (pages 345-348):

(more…)

Liquid Surfaces and Interfaces Synchrotron X-ray Methods


Peter S. Pershan, Mark Schlossman, "Liquid Surfaces and Interfaces: Synchrotron X-ray Methods"
English | 2012 | pages: 336 | ISBN: 0521814014 | PDF | 8,0 mb
The availability of synchrotron x-ray sources and the subsequent developments described in this book have led to substantial progress in our understanding of molecular ordering at liquid interfaces. This practical guide enables graduate students and researchers working in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to understand and carry out experimental investigations into the basic physical and chemical properties of liquid surfaces and interfaces. The book examines the surfaces of bulk liquids, thin wetting films and buried liquid-liquid interfaces. It discusses experiments on simple and complex fluids, including pure water and organic liquids, liquid crystals, liquid metals, electrified liquid-liquid interfaces and interfacial monolayers of amphiphiles, nanoparticles, polymers and biomolecules. A detailed description of the apparatus and techniques required for these experiments is provided, and theoretical approaches to data analysis are described, including approximate methods such as the Master formula, the Born approximation, Parratt’s algorithm and the Distorted Wave Approximation.

(more…)

Ionic Liquid Applications Pharmaceuticals, Therapeutics, and Biotechnology


Ionic Liquid Applications: Pharmaceuticals, Therapeutics, and Biotechnology By Sanjay V. Malhotra (Eds.)
2010 | 226 Pages | ISBN: 0841225478 | PDF | 6 MB
Content: Ionic liquids as pharmaceutical salts: a historical perspective / Vineet Kumar and Sanjay Malhotra — Ionic liquids: new opportunities for the chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and pharmaceutical compounds / James Ternois … [et al.] — Enzymatic membrane reactor for resolution of ketoprofen in ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide / Pedro Lozano … [et al.] — Development of a universal method based on ionic liquids for determination of enantiomeric compositions of pharmaceutical products / Chieu D. Tran — New method for installation of the imidazole ring and synthesis of biologically active molecules with ionic liquid-like structures / Yuichi Kobayashi … [et al.] — Separation and recovery of penicillin in an integrated system containing ionic liquids / Yangyang Jiang … [et al.] — Antitumor activity of ionic liquids on human tumor cell lines / Vineet Kumar and Sanjay V. Malhotra — Preparation of ionic liquid-modified inorganic nanoparticles and their biomedical application / Asako Narita, Kensuke Naka, and Yoshiki Chujo — Preparation of biopolymer-based materials using ionic liquids for the biomedical application / Sang Hyun Lee … [et al.] — Toxicological evaluation of ionic liquids / Raquel F.M. Frade … [et al.] — Formation of anhydrosugars from polysaccharides in ionic liquids by microwave irradiation / Hiroe Satoh … [et al.] — Chiral pyrrolidine-substituted ionic liquid-mediated activation of enzyme / Toshiyuki Itoh … [et al.] — Deep eutectic solvents for Candida antarctica lipase b-catalyzed reactions / Johnathan T. Gorke, Friedrich Srienc, and Romas J. Kazlauskas — Enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide / Pedro Lozano … [et al.] — On the merge of fungal activity with ionic liquids towards the development of new biotechnological processes / M. Petkovic … [et al.].

(more…)

Solid-Liquid Thermal Energy Storage Modeling and Applications


English | 2022 | ISBN: 1032100184, 978-1032100180 | 361 pages | True PDF | 23.9 MB
Solid – Liquid Thermal Energy Storage: Modeling and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of solid-liquid phase change thermal storage. Chapters are written by specialists from both academia and industry. Using recent studies on the improvement, modeling, and new applications of these systems, the book discusses innovative solutions for any potential drawbacks.

(more…)